Literal MeaningThe term literal meaning tells us that all words are in strict accordance with their original meanings. Many words (e.g., to depart) have a literal meaning (to leave) and a figurative one (to die). To apply the literal meaning is to take the words in their most basic sense, i.e., not in their figurative sense or in any additional meaning.
Easy Examples of Literal Meaning
- The comedian died on the stage. (In the literal meaning, the comedian actually died. In the figurative meaning, the comedian struggled to make the audience laugh.)
- We will all be in the same boat. (In the literal meaning, all people will be in a boat. In the figurative meaning, they will all be facing the same issues.)
- I have thrown the proposal out. (In the literal meaning, the proposal paper was physically thrown out of the room. In the figurative meaning, the proposal was dismissed, but the proposal paper stayed in the room.)
More Examples of Literal MeaningThe literal meaning of a word contrasts with any figurative meaning. (Remember, figurative language is the use of words in an unusual or imaginative manner.)
- John managed to escape the wolves. (In the literal meaning, John succeeded in getting away from some real wolves. In the figurative meaning, he may have avoided a verbal bashing at a meeting from aggressive colleagues.)
- Can I play outside, grandma?
- You can, dear, but you're not allowed. (Here, grandma is taking the word can in its original, literal sense, i.e., to mean to have the ability to. The grandchild used can in its more recently developed, additional meaning of may or to have permission to.)
- Janet was thrown to the wolves. (Obviously, Janet wasn't thrown to any real wolves. She was sacrificed. Well, she wasn't actually sacrificed. She was abandoned to harm. Well, she wasn't physically abandoned.)
- She was literally on fire during her lecture. (This means she put in a very good performance. She wasn't actually on fire, despite the use of literally.)
- Using "literally" metaphorically is literally spreading like wildfire. (Journalist Adam Lewis, The Guardian)
- If there are non-native English speakers among your readers, avoid non-literal terms that could hinder their understanding.
- "A literal paradox: 'literally' generally means figuratively." (Dennis Baron, Oxford University Press)
Why Should I Care about Literal Meaning?Non-native speakers of any language often fail to understand the non-literal or additional meanings of words. Therefore, if you're writing to an audience that includes non-native English speakers, you should tune your diction (i.e., choice of words) towards literal meanings. This can be challenging.
Here's a tip: You're not striving for a text of literal meanings. You're just looking to find alternatives to any non-literal terms that could hinder a non-native speaker's understanding. Saying "Janet was sacrificed" (even though sacrificed is not being used in its literal sense) would be safe.
Also of note, nowadays the adverb literally does not always mean in the literal meaning. It is often just used as an intensifier.