Number is a grammatical category. In English, the two number categories are singular and plural. These two categories relate to nouns, pronouns, adjectives and verbs. In other words, a noun, a pronoun, an adjective or a verb can be described as singular or plural.
Easy Examples of Number
The word singular refers to a quantity of one. The word plural refers to more than one.
Here are some easy examples of nouns, pronouns, adjectives and verbs in the two number categories:
Here is an example sentence with all singular words:
|Noun||cat, mouse||cats, mice|
|Pronoun||I, he||we, they|
|Adjective||this, his||these, their|
|Verb||is, was||are, were|
Here is an example sentence with all plural words:
- That man stalks her.
(Here, we have a singular adjective, noun, verb and pronoun.)
- They smoke those leaves.
(Here, we have a plural pronoun, verb, adjective and noun.)
Real-Life Examples to Explain Number
These examples use just singular words.
These examples use just plural words.
- A balanced diet means a cupcake in each hand.
- It's simple. If it jiggles, it's fat. (Arnold Schwarzenegger)
- I love my six-pack so much, I protect it with a layer of fat.
- "Revenge" sounds mean, which is the reason I call it "returning the favour."
- Dogs seek masters. Cats seek waiters.
- When policemen on bikes arrest people, do they put them in their baskets?
- They succeed because they think they can. (Roman poet Virgil)
- If women ran things, we wouldn't have wars, just intense negotiations every 28 days. (Actor Robin Williams)
Why Should I Care about Number?
Some words change when their grammatical number changes. For example, nouns tend to add an s (e.g., cat becomes cats), verbs might fleet an s (e.g., he plays becomes they play) and one or two adjectives change their forms (e.g., this becomes these).
Compared to many other languages, we have it relatively easy with English because lots of words (especially adjectives) don't change at all when their grammatical number changes. For example, we say smelly dog and smelly dogs. The word smelly doesn't change. That's not the case in many other languages:
So, even though, the risk of you making a mistake with grammatical number in English is low, it is worth understanding the term "grammatical number" because it will help with learning a foreign language.
- French: chien malodorant becomes chiens malodorants
- German: stinkender Hund becomes stinkende Hunde
- Spanish: perro maloliente becomes perros malolientes
As we’ve said, native English speakers are pretty good at ensuring their nouns, pronouns, adjectives and verbs agree in number with each other. More specifically, we're pretty good at ensuring:
Adjectives agree in number with nouns
- This love is silent. (Playwright TS Eliot)
(A singular adjective with a singular noun)
- These accolades get in the way. (Singer Bob Dylan)
(A plural adjective with a plural noun)
Adjectives agree in number with pronouns
- I write my own quotations…except this one. I stole this one from somebody really clever. (Author Brian Celio)
(A singular adjective with a singular pronoun)
- I want to be one of those ones: a legend. (Rapper Ty Dolla Sign)
(A plural adjective with a plural pronoun)
Nouns agree in number with verbs
- A fly flies.
(A singular noun with a singular verb)
- Flies fly.
(A plural noun with a plural verb)
Pronouns agree in number with verbs
However, as good as we are at getting grammatical number right, we're not infallible. Here are eleven issues that often trip us up:
- Everything is self-evident. (French philosopher Rene Descartes).
(A singular pronoun with a singular verb)
- Some are wise and some are otherwise. (Poet Tobias Smollett)
(A plural pronoun with a plural verb)
(Issue 1) Make sure these and those agree with their noun.
These and those modify plural nouns. Be careful when using the words kind and type.
- These kind of things. [wrong]
(It should be kinds.)
- Those type of issues. [wrong]
(It should be types.)
(Issue 2) Don't make the wrong noun agree with the verb.
In a construction like a box of videos or an assortment of chocolates, the verb must agree with the head noun (i.e., box or assortment) not videos or chocolates.
This is covered in more detail in the entries for subjects and prepositional phrases.
- An assortment of chocolates are available from the shop. [wrong]
(It should be is. The verb should agree with assortment, which is singular.)
(Issue 3) Be aware that terms like along with and together with do not increase the number.
Unlike and, terms like along with, together with and as well as do increase the number of the subject.
- Bill and Ben are the Flowerpot Men.
(The word and increases the number.)
- Bill together with Ben is a Flowerpot Man.
(The terms together with does not increases the number.)
(Issue 4) Be aware that or and nor do not increase the number.
Unlike and, or and nor do not increase the number.
This is covered in more detail on the entry on subjects and correlative conjunctions.
- Bill or Ben is guilty of breaking the sunflower.
- Neither Bill nor Ben has a clue about gardening.
(Issue 5) Treat either and neither as singular.
Even though they seem to refer to two things, either and neither are singular.
- Quorn nuggets or quorn chilli? Er, neither is my preference.
- Either of the twins is available.
(Issue 6) Be aware that collective nouns can be singular or plural.
A collective noun is a word that represents a group (e.g., choir, shoal, team). A collective noun can be singular or plural depending on the context.
This is covered in more detail on the entry on subjects and collective nouns.
- The flock is moving away.
(When considered as one unit, a collective noun is singular.)
- The flock are scattering in different directions.
(When the focus is on the individuals in the group, a collective noun is plural.)
(Issue 7) Be aware that none can be singular or plural.
Even though some of your readers might expect you to treat it as singular, none can be singular or plural.
If your none translates best as not one of, treat it as singular. If it translates best as not any of, treat it as plural.
- None of us is happy.
- None of us are happy.
This is covered in more detail on the entry on subjects.
(Issue 8) Be aware that terms like half of, the majority of, and a percentage of can be singular or plural.
Expressions such as half of, a part of, a percentage of, a proportion of, and a majority of are singular when they refer to something singular but plural when they refer to something plural.
This is covered in more detail on the entry on subjects.
- Half of my life has put the other half in the grave. (French dramatist Pierre Corneille)
(Half is singular because it refers to life, which is singular.)
- Half of the American people have never read a newspaper, and half have never voted. One hopes it is the same half. (Writer Gore Vidal)
(Half is plural because it refers to people, which is plural.)
(Issue 9) Treat a number of as plural, but the number of as singular.
The term a number of is plural, but the number of is singular.
- A number of people are still sleeping rough in the town.
- The number of people sleeping rough is growing.
(Issue 10) Be aware that terms like all of and some of can be singular or plural.
All of, any of, more of, most of, and some of are singular when they precede something singular but plural when they precede something plural.
- Most of the story does not make sense.
(Most is singular because it precedes story, which is singular.)
- Most of the people do not realize it, but we're part of something much bigger than ourselves, and we're all connected in some way…not just through Facebook.
(Most is plural because it precedes people, which is plural.)
(Issue 11) Treat each of as singular.
Each is singular. Don't treat it as plural when it appears in a term like each of us or each of the children.
- Each of my garments is something special in itself. (Fashion designer Hubert de Givenchy)
- Each of us bears his own Hell. (Roman poet Virgil)